المنشورات العلمية لـكلية الطب البشري

احصائيات منشورات كلية الطب البشري

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    وثيقة

Selective Adenosine A2A receptor inhibitor SCH58261 reduces oligodendrocyte loss upon brain injury in young rats

Cellular elements of maturing brain are vulnerable to insults, which lead to neurodevelopmental defects. There are no established treatments at present. Here we examined the efficacy of selective adenosine A2A receptor inhibitor SCH58261 to combat brain injury, particularly oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells, in young rats. Wistar rats (n = 24, 6.5 days old) were randomly divided into equal groups of four. The sham (SHAM) group received no treatment, the vehicle (VEHICLE) group received 0.1% dimethylsufoxide, the injury (INJ) group was exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation insult, and the injury+SCH58261 (INJ+SCH58261) group was exposed to the insult and received 1 μM SCH58261. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed that there was a significant reduction in the populations of mature OL (MBP+ OLs) and immature OL precursors (NG2+ OPCs) in the INJ group compared to SHAM group. Furthermore, there was also a significant increase in the percent of apoptotic MBP+ OL and NG2+ OPC populations as evidenced by TUNEL assay. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the proliferation rate among NG2+ OPCs, which was confirmed by BrdU immunostaining. On the other hand, treatment with SCH58261 significantly enhanced survival, evidenced by the reduction in apoptotic indices for both cell types, and it is preserved the NG2+ OPC proliferation. Activation of adenosine A2A receptors may contribute to OL lineage cell loss in association with decreased mitotic behavior of OPCs in neonatal brains upon injury. Future investigations assessing ability of SCH58261 to regenerate myelin will provide insights into its wider clinical relevance.
Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Rabia O. Alghazeer, Nuri Awayn, Ghalia Shamlan, Areej A. Eskandrani, Afnan M. Alnajeebi, Nouf A. Babteen, Wafa S. Alansari(1-2020)
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Antioxidant Activity and Hepatoprotective Potential of Flavonoids from Arbutus pavarii against CCl4 Induced Hepatic Damage

Flavonoids have been shown to have antioxidant factors and effective against hepatotoxicity. This in vivo study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of flavonoids rich extracts in a model of chemicalinduced liver cell injury. Materials and Methods: Flavonoids were extracted from leaves and flowers of Arbutus pavarii using Microwave assisted extraction method. Different concentrations of extracted flavonoids (200, 500, 1000, 2000 and 5000mg/kg bw) were evaluated up to two weeks on mice model. The hepatoprotective effects of the extracts were examined using mice pretreated orally with 200 and 400 mg/kg bw of flavonoids extracted from leaves and flowers as well as their combination (200 mg/kg; 1:1) for 28 days. At day 28, the mice were received orally a single dose of 1ml/kg CCl4 in corn oil. Forty-eight hours after Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment, the animals were sacrificed and their liver and blood samples were collected for determination of biochemical parameters (Alkaline phosphatase (ALT), Aspartate-aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine-aminotransferase (ALP)), histopathological investigation and antioxidant status. Results: Treatment of the mice with a daily dose of flavonoids extracts up to 5 g/kg bw did not cause mortality and did not show hepatotoxicity. Pretreatment with extracts decreased the increased serum levels of ALT, AST, and ALP, decreased lipid peroxidation and maintained the levels of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes status in the CCl4 treated mice, especially in the group treated with combined extracts. The hepato-protcitve effects were confirmed by histopathological examinations. Conclusion: The results shown by the extracted flavonoids need further investigation.
Rabia Alghazeer, Sana Elgahmasi, Abdul Hakim Elnfati, Mohamed Elhensheri, Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Nuri Awayn, Mariuma El- Nami(3-2018)
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Maternal Exposure of Mouse to Low-Dose of Trichloroethane is Associated with Increased Birth Weight and Early Neonatal Neurobehavioral Abnormalities

Maternal exposure to environmental chemicals can adversely affect fetal health. This study aims to identify, in-vivo, the risk of maternal exposure to trichloroethane (TCE) on the birth weight and the neurobehavioral performance of newborns. Groups of female albino mice (F0 generation) were injected intraperitoneally twice weekly for three weeks with TCE (100 and 400 µg/kg BW). Animals were followed up for signs of toxicity and mortality. Neonate's motor behavior including large movement (crawling, pivoting, righting) and small movement (tremor) were assessed. No toxicity adverse signs or mortality were observed in the animals (F0 generation) treated with TCE. The results showed that TCE exposure led to a significant increase in the F1 mouse body weight compared to controls. The results also showed that tremor of neonates of dams exposed to TCE (100µg/kg and 400µg/kg BW) were significantly increased when assessed on postnatal day-1 (PND-1). These findings provide support to a role of the environmental toxicant, TCE, in abnormalities in birth weight and neonatal neurobehavior.
Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Massaud S. Maamar, Naser M. Salama, Lubna N. Algadi, Abdul Hakim S. Elnfati, Emad M. Bennour(9-2015)
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Mode of Cell Death in Mouse Brain Following Early Exposure to Low-Dose Trichloroethane: Apoptosis or Necrosis

The goal of this study was to investigate, in-vivo, the predominant mechanism of cell death, apoptosis versus necrosis, in the mature mouse brain exposed early to a ubiquitous environmental toxicant trichloroethane (TCE). A subset of male albino mice was injected intraperitoneally twice weekly for three weeks with TCE (100 and 400µg/kg). All animals were followed up for signs of toxicity and mortality. Changes in neural tissues were histpathologically evaluated. Biomarkers of brain cell number were also studied. The results showed that TCE insult triggered significant alterations in the microstructure of the brain tissues compared to controls. Mitotic figures and apoptotic changes such as chromatin condensation and nuclear fragments were also identified. Cell death analysis demonstrates that cell apoptosis with necrosis was evident in the TCE-treated groups. The percent of necrosis was quantified as 20.09 ± 2.57% at 100µg/kg TCE, 30.57 ± 5.18% at 400µg/kg TCE, and 12.67 ± 1.25% in controls. However, the percent of apoptosis was quantified as 29.18 ± 1.51% at 100µg/kg TCE, 20.14 ± 2.12% at 400µg/kg TCE, and 8 ± 1.25% in controls. There was also a significant reduction in the brain DNA content in the TCE-treated groups. Agarose gel electrophoresis is also provided further biochemical evidence of apoptosis by showing internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. These results correlated with neurobehavioral impairment. These findings indicate that TCE induces degeneration and apoptotic cell death in mouse brain, suggesting a crucial role played by apoptosis in TCE neurotoxicity.
Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Abdul Hakim Elnfati, Naser M. Salama, Massaud S. Maamar, Soad A. Treesh, Taher Shaibi(10-2015)
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Fertility and Reproductive Outcome in Mice Following Trichloroethane (TCE) Exposure

Exposure to trichloroethane (TCE), an industrial solvent, has been shown to be negatively associated with reproductive performance. The present study was performed to assess the effects of TCE exposure on the reproductive performance and outcome in mice during a critical developmental window of later reproductive life. A group of female mice were injected intraperitoneally twice weekly for three weeks with TCE (100 and 400 µg/kg). Mice were followed up for signs of toxicity and death. Changes in uterine tissues have also been investigated by histopathology. The results showed that TCE exposure has reduced the number of F0 fertile females comparing to controls. Moreover, TCE exposure resulted in a decreased pups number and changed sex ratio in the litter of F0 TCE­treated dams. Histopathological examination revealed a TCE­induced uterine toxicity appeared as a severe endometrial hyperplasia with squamous cell metaplasia and adenomyosis. These results indicate that TCE exposure during a critical reproductive developmental window could affect the fertility and interfere with the reproductive outcome in mice.
Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Seham A. Azreg, Emad M. Bennour, Salem A. El-Mahgiubi, Ali R. Al-Attar, Naser M. Salama, Abdul Hakim Elnfati(10-2015)
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Critical Success Factors of ISO/IEC 17025 Implementation within Arabic Countries: A Case Study of Libyan Research Centres and Laboratories - LRCL

Aim– This paper aims to review the existing literature relevant to the subject of ISO/IEC 17025 within Arabic countries and Libyan Research Centres Laboratories (LRCL), especially to the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) that effect the implementation of ISO/IEC 17025 standards. Therefore, a review of the literature revealed a major gap in studies in this area of quality standards for testing and calibration laboratories. Methodology– The aspects listed were based on a review of the literature. This paper summaries the key findings result within LRCL using SWOT and Template analysis to analyse the data collected from existing literature and LRCL data. Findings –The findings revealed that despite some organisations have faced challenges undertaking ISO/IEC 17025 implementations, many others have enjoyed the benefits that the systems have brought to the organisations. Outcomes of the research are important for Arabic and Libyan organisations implementing ISO/IEC 17025 systems and for consulting companies assisting with ISO/IEC 17025 implementation. The distribution of the current study results will lead to knowledge transfer and help organisations, among Arabic and developing countries including Libya, in the process of achieving standardisation. Originality, Value – The novelty of this research paper stems from the realisation of critical factors determining a successful implementation of ISO/IEC 17025 within research centers and Laboratories in Arabic countries and LRCL. The originality and value of this research paper is to fill the gap in knowledge in this area, which is explicit to the Arabic countries and Libya in particular. In addition, it contributes to the literature and professional practice by offering new insights into the CSFs for the implementation of ISO/IEC 17025 in Arabic countries and LRCL.
Anwar Salih Ali Al-mijrab, Maged Elmabruk Elgharib, Mohamed A. Al-Griw(5-2019)
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Improving Quality of Education in Extreme Adversities-The case of Libya

Evidence based medicine, clinical reasoning, self-directed critical thinking and problem solving approach are mandatory in order to acquire better retained and usable knowledge in a clinical context through student-centered teaching, and team interpersonal skills promotion. Adoption of new and high standards methods of teaching such as 3D models [24,25], along with updated responsive teaching materials are mandatory and represent pre-requirements for accredited medical schools
Aisha Nasef, Mohamed A Al-Griw, Adel El Taguri(5-2020)
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Cell Death in Mouse Brain following Early Exposure to Trichloroethane (TCE)

Exposure to chemicals has been shown to adversely affect CNS health in rodents and humans. The objective was to evaluate, in-vivo, the effects of trichloroethane (TCE), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, on the integrity of neural cells. A group of albino mice was injected intraperitoneally twice weekly for three weeks with TCE (100 and 400 µg/kg). Animals were followed up for signs of toxicity and death. Alterations in neural tissues have also been investigated by histopathology The results showed a large number of degenerative neural cells (pyknosis of nuclei, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation) in the 100 and 400 µg/kg TCE-treated groups comparing to controls. Although there were no significant effect on the neural cell counts, the pattern of increased degenerative cells in TCE-treated groups was higher compared to controls. The results also showed that TCE led to a significant increase in the percent of degenerative neurons. There was also a significant reduction in the percent of neurons. These results correlated with the increase in the percent of glia. This study indicates that TCE exposure had detrimental impact on neural cells, and that neurons are more vulnerable to TCE than glia in this in-vivo mouse model.
Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Naser M. Salama, Soad A. Treesh, Lubna N. Algadi, Abdul hakim Elnfati(7-2015)
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