Dr. Mohamed Al Griw

Department of Histology faculty of Medicine

Full name

Dr. Mohamed A M Al Griw


Doctor of Phiosophy

Academic Rank

Assistant Professor


Mohamed Al-Griw is one of the staff members at the Department of Histology and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine. He is working as an associate professor since 2019. He teaches several subjects in his major and has several publications in the field of his interest.

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Contact Information


Doctor of Phiosophy

Ph.D. in Neuroscience, Clinical Molecular Genetics
School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, UK
11 ,2012

Master degree

M.Sc. of Sciences,
Faculty of Sciences, University of Tripoli
1 ,2006

Bachelor Degree

B.Sc. of Sciences
Faculty of Sciences, University of Tripoli
4 ,2000



2019 - 2020


2019 - 2020


2018 - 2019


2017 - 2020


2016 - 2017


2016 - 2017


2014 - 2016


Environmentally toxicant exposures induced intragenerational transmission of liver abnormalities in mice

Environmental toxicants such as chemicals, heavy metals, and pesticides have been shown to promote transgenerational inheritance of abnormal phenotypes and/or diseases to multiple subsequent generations following parental and/ or ancestral exposures. This study was designed to examine the potential transgenerational action of the environmental toxicant trichloroethane (TCE) on transmission of liver abnormality, and to elucidate the molecular etiology of hepatocyte cell damage. A total of thirty two healthy immature female albino mice were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: a sham group, which did not receive any treatment; a vehicle group, which received corn oil alone, and TCE treated group (3 weeks, 100 μg/kg i.p., every 4th day). The F0 and F1 generation control and TCE populations were sacrificed at the age of four months, and various abnormalities histpathologically investigated. Cell death and oxidative stress indices were also measured. The present study provides experimental evidence for the inheritance of environmentally induced liver abnormalities in mice. The results of this study show that exposure to the TCE promoted adult onset liver abnormalities in F0 female mice as well as unexposed F1 generation offspring. It is the first study to report a transgenerational liver abnormalities in the F1 generation mice through maternal line prior to gestation. This finding was based on careful evaluation of liver histopathological abnormalities, apoptosis of hepatocytes, and measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and nitric oxide) in control and TCE populations. There was an increase in liver histopathological abnormalities, cell death, and oxidative lipid damage in F0 and F1 hepatic tissues of TCE treated group. In conclusion, this study showed that the biological and health impacts of environmental toxicant TCE do not end in maternal adults, but are passed on to offspring generations. Hence, linking observed liver abnormality in the offspring to environmental exposure of their parental line. This study also illustrated that oxidative stress and apoptosis appear to be a molecular component of the hepatocyte cell injury.
Mohamed A. Al-Griw , Soad A. Treesh, Rabia O. Alghazeer, Sassia O. Regeai (7-2017)
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Effects of storage temperature on the quantity and integrity of genomic DNA extracted from mice tissues: A comparison of recovery methods

Efficient extraction of genomic DNA (gDNA) from biological materials found in harsh environments is the first step for successful forensic DNA profiling. This study aimed to evaluate two methods for DNA recovery from animal tissues (livers, muscles), focusing on the best storage temperature for DNA yield in term of quality, quantity, and integrity for use in several downstream molecular techniques. Six male Swiss albino mice were sacrificed, liver and muscle tissues (n=32) were then harvested and stored for one week in different temperatures, -20C, 4C, 25C and 40C. The conditioned animal tissues were used for DNA extraction by Chelex-100 method or NucleoSpin Blood and Tissue kit. The extracted gDNA was visualized on 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis to determine the quality of gDNA and analysed spectrophotometrically to determine the DNA concentration and the purity. Both methods, Chelex-100 and NucleoSpin Blood and Tissue kit found to be appropriate for yielding high quantity of gDNA, with the Chelex100 method yielding a greater quantity (P < 0.045) than the kit. At -20C, 4C, and 25C temperatures, the concentration of DNA yield was numerically lower than at 40C. The NucleoSpin Blood and Tissue kit produced a higher (P=0.031) purity product than the Chelex-100 method, particularly for muscle tissues. The Chelex-100 method is cheap, fast, effective, and is a crucial tool for yielding DNA from animal tissues (livers, muscles) exposed to harsh environment with little limitations.
Huda H. Al-Griw, Zena A. Zraba, Salsabiel K. Al-Muntaser, Marwan M. Draid, Aisha M. Zaidi, Refaat M. Tabagh , Mohamed A. Al-Griw(8-2017)
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Cellular and molecular etiology of hepatocyte injury in a murine model of environmentally induced liver abnormality

Exposures to a wide variety of environmental substances are negatively associated with many biological cell systems both in humans and rodents. Trichloroethane (TCE), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, is used in large quantities as a dissolvent, metal degreaser, chemical intermediate, and component of consumer products. This increases the likelihood of human exposure to these compounds through dermal, inhalation and oral routes. The present in vivo study was aimed to investigate the possible cellular and molecular etiology of liver abnormality induced by early exposure to TCE using a murine model. The results showed a significant increase in liver weight. Histopathological examination revealed a TCE-induced hepatotoxicity which appeared as heavily congested central vein and blood sinusoids as well as leukocytic infiltration. Mitotic figures and apoptotic changes such as chromatin condensation and nuclear fragments were also identified. Cell death analysis demonstrates hepatocellular apoptosis was evident in the treated mice compared to control. TCE was also found to induce oxidative stress as indicated by an increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation, an oxidative stress marker. There was also a significant decrease in the DNA content of the hepatocytes of the treated groups compared to control. Agarose gel electrophoresis also provided further biochemical evidence of apoptosis by showing internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the liver cells, indicating oxidative stress as the cause of DNA damage. These results suggest the need for a complete risk assessment of any new chemical prior to its arrival into the consumer market.
Mohamed M. Al-Griw, Rabia O. Alghazeer, S. A. Al-Azreg, Emad M. Bennour(9-2016)
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CYP1A1 Genetic Variations and Lung Cancer Risk in a Population of Libyan Males

Alterations in genes encoding the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes contribute to the variability in susceptibility to various cancers. In this study, we assessed the possible association between the CYP1A1 variants and lung cancer (LC) risk in a population of Libyan males. For this study, we selected 20 unrelated healthy controls and 32 patients with LC. DNA samples from the controls and patients were screened by DNA-PCR and direct DNA sequence analysis to search for genetic sequence variations in CYP1A1 gene (exon 7 and 3’ non-coding region). CYP1A1 mutations were identified in 11.5 % adult subjects and cases analyzed, and all were males. Overall, 11 CYP1A1 mutations were documented in this study implicating exon 7 and 3’ non-coding region. Nonsense, missense, and frame-shift mutations accounted for, respectively, 27.3 %, 63.6 % and 9.1 % of all CYP1A1 mutations. Three missense mutations namely CYP1A1*2B/m2 (rs1048943), CYP1A1*4/m4 (rs1799814), and CYP1A1*2A/m1 (rs4646903) have already been reported. The remaining mutations have not been described previously. We observed two apparently heterozygous carriers of mutation CYP1A1*2B/m2 (CYP1A1 4889A/G [642Ile/Val] genotype) in control group. We also observed two heterozygotic genotypes one containing mutation m4 (CYP1A1 4887C/A [461Thr/Asp]) and another containing mutation m1 (6235T/C) in cancer group. The mutations m2, m4, and m1 accounted for, respectively, 18.2 %, 9.1 % and 9.1 % of all CYP1A1 mutations. Comparing the clinical features showed that PLT and WBC counts were lower in CYP1A1 mutant than in CYP1A1 wild type, but they have not reached statistical significant (P > 0.05). The average age of CYP1A1 mutant was lower than in CYP1A1 wild type. Overall, these findings suggest that genetic alterations in the metabolic gene CYP1A1 are too rare to be of clinical relevance in this study, implying different pathways for the LC risk with respect to CYP1A1 polymorphisms as a risk factor for LC at least in this study.
Najah A. Fares, Othman A. El-Ansari, Mohamed A. Al-Griw(4-2017)
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Prevalence of Mutations in TAL1 Gene in Individuals With T-ALL and T-NHL

Mutations in the TAL1 (T-cell acute leukemia 1) gene were recently described in patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) and in those with lymphoblastic T-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (T-NHL). The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the prevalence of mutations in TAL1 gene in T-ALL and TNHL. DNA samples from 15 unrelated healthy controls, 20 T-ALL patients, and 10 T-NHL patients were analyzed using DNA-PCR and direct DNA sequencing to identify sequence genetic variations in TAL1 gene (exons 2 and 3). TAL1 exon 2 mutations were identified in 7.7% adult and 12.5% adolescent T-ALL patients analyzed. TAL1 exon 2 mutations were detected in 16.7% of the adult TNHL patients analyzed. Sequencing of TAL1 exon 3 showed no sequence variation for the T-ALL and T-NHL cancer patients analyzed. No sex difference where observed in the incidences of TAL1 exons 2 mutations between T-ALL and T-NHL patients with and without TAL1 mutations. TAL1 exon 2 missense and frame-shift mutations were present in 44.4% (4/9) and 55.6% (5/9) of T-ALL patients, respectively. However, the frame-shift and missense mutations in the T-NHL patients accounted for, where respectively, 60% (3/5) and 40% (4/5) of all TAL1 exon 2 mutations. Comparing the clinical features showed that there are no differences in PLT and WBC counts as well as the average age between T-ALL and T-NHL patients with and without TAL1 mutations. Overall, these findings indicate that TAL1 mutations are too rare to be of clinical relevance, and do not seem to be significantly associated with the increased T-ALL and T-NHL susceptibility, implying different pathways with respect to TAL1 genetic polymorphisms as a risk factor for T-ALL and T-NHL at least in this population of Libyans.
Amal E. Elarifi, Othman A. El-Ansari, Mohamed A. Al-Griw(12-2016)
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Cerebellar Organotypic Slice Culture System: A Model of Developing Brain Ischaemia

Ischaemic injury during brain development correlates with long-term neurological problems resulting in part from oligodendrocytes (OL) damage and a loss of appropriate myelination. The molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible remain partially understood and there is no effective clinical treatment. Here we develop and characterise an ex-vivo slice culture ischaemia model to elucidate the cellular mechanisms to aid the search for therapeutic interventions. Cerebellar slices from 7 day-old rats were cultured for 10 days and their developmental profile in culture and their response to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) was assessed. During the culture period development of white matter progressed as in-vivo, the numbers of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) decreased and the numbers of mature OLs increased and there was extensive myelination of axons as judged by colocalisation of myelin basic protein and neurofilament. Cultured slices were exposed to a short period of OGD at 7 days in-vitro and reperfused to mimic in-vivo conditions. Twenty minutes of OGD was found to result in significant injury as judged by a 58.6% reduction in cell viability 3 days post-injury. Treatment of cultures with OGD resulted in a loss of OLs and a loss of myelination of axons. In summary we have developed a paradigm for studying the damage to OLs and loss of myelination associated with ischaemic periods during development which should facilitate the search for understanding the mechanisms responsible and identifying potential therapeutic interventions.
Mohamed A M Al Griw , Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Ian C. Wood, Michael G. Salter(11-2017)
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Oxidative Stress Mediated Cytotoxicity of Trichloroethane in a Model of Murine Splenic Injury

The present in vivo murine study was aimed to investigate the long-term effect of repeated administration of low-dose of the environmental toxicant trichloroethane (TCE) over three weeks on the spleen and peripheral blood cells, and the possible role of oxidative stress in TCE-induced toxicity. The results showed neither adverse clinical signs nor mortality on the TCE-treated mice. However, significant changes were noticed in the spleen of those animals. Grossly, the spleen of TCE-treated group was congested and enlarged (splenomegaly). Histpathologically, the splenic tissues of TCE-treated mice showed signs of toxicity as highly activated germinal centers of the white pulp with minimal apoptotic reaction as well as a prominent megakarocytosis and infiltration of the red pulp by comparatively increased number of eosinophiIs and mature lymphocytes were detected. In addition, lymphocyte numbers were decreased in peripheral blood as well as basophils. In contrast, there was an increase in monocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation. In addition, lipid peroxidation/ malondialdehyde formation, a biomarker of oxidative stress, was significantly induced by TCE treatment in the sera and spleen of mice, suggesting an overall increase in oxidative stress. These results provide further support to a role of oxidative stress in TCE-induced cell death, which could result in an impaired spleen function. This study concludes that attenuation of TCE-induced splenic damage in mice provides an approach for preventive and/or therapeutic strategies
Massaud S. Maamar, Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Rabia O. Al-Ghazeer, Seham A. Al-Azreg, Naser M. Salama, Emad M. Bennour(3-2016)
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Cell Death in Mouse Brain following Early Exposure to Trichloroethane (TCE)

Exposure to chemicals has been shown to adversely affect CNS health in rodents and humans. The objective was to evaluate, in-vivo, the effects of trichloroethane (TCE), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, on the integrity of neural cells. A group of albino mice was injected intraperitoneally twice weekly for three weeks with TCE (100 and 400 µg/kg). Animals were followed up for signs of toxicity and death. Alterations in neural tissues have also been investigated by histopathology The results showed a large number of degenerative neural cells (pyknosis of nuclei, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation) in the 100 and 400 µg/kg TCE-treated groups comparing to controls. Although there were no significant effect on the neural cell counts, the pattern of increased degenerative cells in TCE-treated groups was higher compared to controls. The results also showed that TCE led to a significant increase in the percent of degenerative neurons. There was also a significant reduction in the percent of neurons. These results correlated with the increase in the percent of glia. This study indicates that TCE exposure had detrimental impact on neural cells, and that neurons are more vulnerable to TCE than glia in this in-vivo mouse model.
Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Naser M. Salama, Soad A. Treesh, Lubna N. Algadi, Abdul hakim Elnfati(7-2015)
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Improving Quality of Education in Extreme Adversities-The case of Libya

Evidence based medicine, clinical reasoning, self-directed critical thinking and problem solving approach are mandatory in order to acquire better retained and usable knowledge in a clinical context through student-centered teaching, and team interpersonal skills promotion. Adoption of new and high standards methods of teaching such as 3D models [24,25], along with updated responsive teaching materials are mandatory and represent pre-requirements for accredited medical schools
Aisha Nasef, Mohamed A Al-Griw, Adel El Taguri(5-2020)
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Critical Success Factors of ISO/IEC 17025 Implementation within Arabic Countries: A Case Study of Libyan Research Centres and Laboratories - LRCL

Aim– This paper aims to review the existing literature relevant to the subject of ISO/IEC 17025 within Arabic countries and Libyan Research Centres Laboratories (LRCL), especially to the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) that effect the implementation of ISO/IEC 17025 standards. Therefore, a review of the literature revealed a major gap in studies in this area of quality standards for testing and calibration laboratories. Methodology– The aspects listed were based on a review of the literature. This paper summaries the key findings result within LRCL using SWOT and Template analysis to analyse the data collected from existing literature and LRCL data. Findings –The findings revealed that despite some organisations have faced challenges undertaking ISO/IEC 17025 implementations, many others have enjoyed the benefits that the systems have brought to the organisations. Outcomes of the research are important for Arabic and Libyan organisations implementing ISO/IEC 17025 systems and for consulting companies assisting with ISO/IEC 17025 implementation. The distribution of the current study results will lead to knowledge transfer and help organisations, among Arabic and developing countries including Libya, in the process of achieving standardisation. Originality, Value – The novelty of this research paper stems from the realisation of critical factors determining a successful implementation of ISO/IEC 17025 within research centers and Laboratories in Arabic countries and LRCL. The originality and value of this research paper is to fill the gap in knowledge in this area, which is explicit to the Arabic countries and Libya in particular. In addition, it contributes to the literature and professional practice by offering new insights into the CSFs for the implementation of ISO/IEC 17025 in Arabic countries and LRCL.
Anwar Salih Ali Al-mijrab, Maged Elmabruk Elgharib, Mohamed A. Al-Griw(5-2019)
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Fertility and Reproductive Outcome in Mice Following Trichloroethane (TCE) Exposure

Exposure to trichloroethane (TCE), an industrial solvent, has been shown to be negatively associated with reproductive performance. The present study was performed to assess the effects of TCE exposure on the reproductive performance and outcome in mice during a critical developmental window of later reproductive life. A group of female mice were injected intraperitoneally twice weekly for three weeks with TCE (100 and 400 µg/kg). Mice were followed up for signs of toxicity and death. Changes in uterine tissues have also been investigated by histopathology. The results showed that TCE exposure has reduced the number of F0 fertile females comparing to controls. Moreover, TCE exposure resulted in a decreased pups number and changed sex ratio in the litter of F0 TCE­treated dams. Histopathological examination revealed a TCE­induced uterine toxicity appeared as a severe endometrial hyperplasia with squamous cell metaplasia and adenomyosis. These results indicate that TCE exposure during a critical reproductive developmental window could affect the fertility and interfere with the reproductive outcome in mice.
Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Seham A. Azreg, Emad M. Bennour, Salem A. El-Mahgiubi, Ali R. Al-Attar, Naser M. Salama, Abdul Hakim Elnfati(10-2015)
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دور إدارة الجودة الشاملة في تحسين أداء مؤسسات التعليم العالي الليبي

تهدف هذه الورقة إلى التعرف على إدارة الجودة الشاملة، وتأثيرها في تحسين أداء مؤسسات التعليم العالي الليبي والعالم العربي، وبيان الانعكاسات الايجابية في الأداء نتيجة لتطبيق إدارة الجودة الشاملة المتمثلة في (التحسين المستمر، واعتماد الإدارة على المعلومات عند اتخاذ القارارت، ودعم الإدارة العليا لتطبيق إدارة الجودة الشاملة، وتركيز الجهود على تلبية حاجات ورغبات الزبائن). إذ توضح هذه الورقة أن إدارة الجودة الشاملة هي أسلوب إداري حديث متميز، ويتطلب من جميع الباحثين في المؤسسات التعليمية في ليبيا، رفع مستوي المنتج التعليمي من خرجين، وبحوث ودارسات، بما يتناسب مع متطلبات مجتمعاتها كما تهدف هذه الورقة لتوضيح مدى تحقيق جودة التعليم حيث ا عتمد ، العالي في المؤسسات التعليمية العربية والليبية من خلال منهج نظري وصفي يستعرض في هذه الورقة الباحثين في هذه الورقة على الأدبيات، والدارسات السابقة المتعلقة بهذا الموضوع، مفهوم إدارة الجودة الشاملة في التعليم العالي، ومميازته، ومتطلباته، ومعوقاته، والتحديات التي تواجه التعليم العالي في العالم العربي بما فيهم دولة ليبيا بالتحديد. كما تتجلي أهمية الدارسة من خلال تناولها لموضوع يتسم بالحداثة ويعد تطبيق المبادئ والأساليب الحديثة على مؤسسات التعليم العالي الليبي في غاية الأهمية، وذلك من أجل الارتقاء بها إلى معدلات عالية من الأداء والجودة ورفع كفاءة الخدمات المقدمة للطلبة والعاملين والباحثين وأعضاء هيئة التدريس. من خلال هذه الدارسة التي قام بها الباحثين تم استخلاص نتيجة مفادها ان تطبيق إدارة الجودة الشاملة يساهم في تعزيز القدارت التنافسية للمؤسسات وبالدرجة التي تمكنها من تحقيق أداء متميز لمواجهة حدة المنافسة التي يتميز بها عصرنا الحالي. وقد توصل الباحثين في هذه الورقة من خلال الدارسات السابقة لاقتارح عدد من التوصيات من أهمها: نشر ثقافة الجودة، الاهتمام بدعم البحث العلمي، دعم الإدارة العليا لتطبيق معايير وا جارءات اعتماد مؤسسات التعليم العالي الليبي الصادرة من المركز الوطني لضمان الجودة.
محمد عبدالسلام محمد القريو , , (12-2018)
موقع المنشور

Mode of Cell Death in Mouse Brain Following Early Exposure to Low-Dose Trichloroethane: Apoptosis or Necrosis

The goal of this study was to investigate, in-vivo, the predominant mechanism of cell death, apoptosis versus necrosis, in the mature mouse brain exposed early to a ubiquitous environmental toxicant trichloroethane (TCE). A subset of male albino mice was injected intraperitoneally twice weekly for three weeks with TCE (100 and 400µg/kg). All animals were followed up for signs of toxicity and mortality. Changes in neural tissues were histpathologically evaluated. Biomarkers of brain cell number were also studied. The results showed that TCE insult triggered significant alterations in the microstructure of the brain tissues compared to controls. Mitotic figures and apoptotic changes such as chromatin condensation and nuclear fragments were also identified. Cell death analysis demonstrates that cell apoptosis with necrosis was evident in the TCE-treated groups. The percent of necrosis was quantified as 20.09 ± 2.57% at 100µg/kg TCE, 30.57 ± 5.18% at 400µg/kg TCE, and 12.67 ± 1.25% in controls. However, the percent of apoptosis was quantified as 29.18 ± 1.51% at 100µg/kg TCE, 20.14 ± 2.12% at 400µg/kg TCE, and 8 ± 1.25% in controls. There was also a significant reduction in the brain DNA content in the TCE-treated groups. Agarose gel electrophoresis is also provided further biochemical evidence of apoptosis by showing internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. These results correlated with neurobehavioral impairment. These findings indicate that TCE induces degeneration and apoptotic cell death in mouse brain, suggesting a crucial role played by apoptosis in TCE neurotoxicity.
Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Abdul Hakim Elnfati, Naser M. Salama, Massaud S. Maamar, Soad A. Treesh, Taher Shaibi(10-2015)
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Maternal Exposure of Mouse to Low-Dose of Trichloroethane is Associated with Increased Birth Weight and Early Neonatal Neurobehavioral Abnormalities

Maternal exposure to environmental chemicals can adversely affect fetal health. This study aims to identify, in-vivo, the risk of maternal exposure to trichloroethane (TCE) on the birth weight and the neurobehavioral performance of newborns. Groups of female albino mice (F0 generation) were injected intraperitoneally twice weekly for three weeks with TCE (100 and 400 µg/kg BW). Animals were followed up for signs of toxicity and mortality. Neonate's motor behavior including large movement (crawling, pivoting, righting) and small movement (tremor) were assessed. No toxicity adverse signs or mortality were observed in the animals (F0 generation) treated with TCE. The results showed that TCE exposure led to a significant increase in the F1 mouse body weight compared to controls. The results also showed that tremor of neonates of dams exposed to TCE (100µg/kg and 400µg/kg BW) were significantly increased when assessed on postnatal day-1 (PND-1). These findings provide support to a role of the environmental toxicant, TCE, in abnormalities in birth weight and neonatal neurobehavior.
Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Massaud S. Maamar, Naser M. Salama, Lubna N. Algadi, Abdul Hakim S. Elnfati, Emad M. Bennour(9-2015)
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Antioxidant Activity and Hepatoprotective Potential of Flavonoids from Arbutus pavarii against CCl4 Induced Hepatic Damage

Flavonoids have been shown to have antioxidant factors and effective against hepatotoxicity. This in vivo study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of flavonoids rich extracts in a model of chemicalinduced liver cell injury. Materials and Methods: Flavonoids were extracted from leaves and flowers of Arbutus pavarii using Microwave assisted extraction method. Different concentrations of extracted flavonoids (200, 500, 1000, 2000 and 5000mg/kg bw) were evaluated up to two weeks on mice model. The hepatoprotective effects of the extracts were examined using mice pretreated orally with 200 and 400 mg/kg bw of flavonoids extracted from leaves and flowers as well as their combination (200 mg/kg; 1:1) for 28 days. At day 28, the mice were received orally a single dose of 1ml/kg CCl4 in corn oil. Forty-eight hours after Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment, the animals were sacrificed and their liver and blood samples were collected for determination of biochemical parameters (Alkaline phosphatase (ALT), Aspartate-aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine-aminotransferase (ALP)), histopathological investigation and antioxidant status. Results: Treatment of the mice with a daily dose of flavonoids extracts up to 5 g/kg bw did not cause mortality and did not show hepatotoxicity. Pretreatment with extracts decreased the increased serum levels of ALT, AST, and ALP, decreased lipid peroxidation and maintained the levels of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes status in the CCl4 treated mice, especially in the group treated with combined extracts. The hepato-protcitve effects were confirmed by histopathological examinations. Conclusion: The results shown by the extracted flavonoids need further investigation.
Rabia Alghazeer, Sana Elgahmasi, Abdul Hakim Elnfati, Mohamed Elhensheri, Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Nuri Awayn, Mariuma El- Nami(3-2018)
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Selective Adenosine A2A receptor inhibitor SCH58261 reduces oligodendrocyte loss upon brain injury in young rats

Cellular elements of maturing brain are vulnerable to insults, which lead to neurodevelopmental defects. There are no established treatments at present. Here we examined the efficacy of selective adenosine A2A receptor inhibitor SCH58261 to combat brain injury, particularly oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells, in young rats. Wistar rats (n = 24, 6.5 days old) were randomly divided into equal groups of four. The sham (SHAM) group received no treatment, the vehicle (VEHICLE) group received 0.1% dimethylsufoxide, the injury (INJ) group was exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation insult, and the injury+SCH58261 (INJ+SCH58261) group was exposed to the insult and received 1 μM SCH58261. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed that there was a significant reduction in the populations of mature OL (MBP+ OLs) and immature OL precursors (NG2+ OPCs) in the INJ group compared to SHAM group. Furthermore, there was also a significant increase in the percent of apoptotic MBP+ OL and NG2+ OPC populations as evidenced by TUNEL assay. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the proliferation rate among NG2+ OPCs, which was confirmed by BrdU immunostaining. On the other hand, treatment with SCH58261 significantly enhanced survival, evidenced by the reduction in apoptotic indices for both cell types, and it is preserved the NG2+ OPC proliferation. Activation of adenosine A2A receptors may contribute to OL lineage cell loss in association with decreased mitotic behavior of OPCs in neonatal brains upon injury. Future investigations assessing ability of SCH58261 to regenerate myelin will provide insights into its wider clinical relevance.
Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Rabia O. Alghazeer, Nuri Awayn, Ghalia Shamlan, Areej A. Eskandrani, Afnan M. Alnajeebi, Nouf A. Babteen, Wafa S. Alansari(1-2020)
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