Publication List for Department of Anatomy, Histology & Embryology

Publication statistics for Department of Anatomy, Histology & Embryology

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    Document

First phalanx exostosis in traditional equestrian horses in Western Libya

Background: Orthopedic diseases involving the forelimb fetlock joint of horses other than those used in professional racing have not been widely reported in the literature. One of these problems is the exostosis on the proximal forelimb phalanx (P1), which has not been reported previously in Western Libya. Aim: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of P1 exostosis in traditional equestrian horses (known locally as Sarj horses) of different breeds in Libya that participated in a special social event and described its clinical findings radiographic appearance. Methods: The current study involved 60 horses admitted to private veterinary clinics with varied fetlock orthopedic problems. The studied horses were aged between 6 and 11 years old and galloped on hard grounds. Clinical and radiographic examinations were carried out on all horses. Lateromedial radiographs for one or both forelimb fetlock joints were acquired for each horse. Results: Clinical examination revealed that 21 horses (35%) had hard non-painful swelling on the dorsal aspect of fetlock with joint stiffness during flexion. In 19 of them, the swelling was bilateral. No forelimb lameness was noticed. Radiographically, hard swelling was diagnosed as bone exostosis, with various sizes, on the proximo-dorsal aspect of P1. There was also a new bone formation on the disto-dorsal part of third metacarpal bone in two cases. Conclusion: This study has documented the first report on bone exostosis on the proximo-dorsal aspect of the forelimb proximal phalanx as a common problem in Sarj horses that galloped on hard grounds in Western Libya. Although this bone lesion did not cause lameness in all reported cases, further investigations are warranted to identify its histopathological nature, potential etiology, and proper treatment. Keywords: Exostosis, Fetlock, Forelimb proximal phalanx, Horse, Radiography.
Mohamed Hamrouni S. Abushhiwa, Taher N. Elmeshreghi, Abdulrhman Mohamed Salah Alrtib, Emad M R Bennour, Aiman Hussein Saleh Oheida(1-2022)
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EFFECT OF LIMB ROTATION ON MEASUREMENTS OF EQUINE METACARPOPHALANGEAL RADIOGRAPHS

Objective: Metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) radiographic parameters were developed to evaluate MCPJ conformation of equine forelimbs, but the effect of joint rotation during radiography on these parameters has not been reported. The current study examined the effect of the rotation around the vertical axis of MCPJ on 27 MCPJ parameters (12 angles and 15 ratios) and identified the acceptable range of rotation at which minimal amount of changes occurred in these parameters. Design: Descriptive study Animals: MCPJs of seven right forelimbs from seven different horses with no MCPJ abnormalities. Procedures: MCPJs of seven right equine forelimbs were loaded in a load cell to obtain the normal MCPJ angle. They were frozen at −20C° and then scanned using a CT-scan machine. The collected slices were reconstructed to obtain a 3D model of MCPJs, and the dorsopalmar view at zero angle (ZDP) were identified. The view was then rotated around the vertical axis of MCPJ. Snapshots were taken for MCPJ at −10°, −5°, Zero, +5° and +10° angles. All the parameters were measured on the total 35 radiographs and statistically analysed. Differences were estimated per 5° of MCPJ rotation for all the parameters. Results:Generally, the ratio parameters were less affected than the angular parameters during MCPJ rotation. Conclusion and clinical relevance: Rotational angles of vertical ±10° from ZDP were considered as an acceptable range for reliable radiographic measurements of MCPJ parameters. Keywords Equine; fetlock; morphometry; radiology; rotation
Abdulrhman Mohamed Salah Alrtib, Aiman Hussein Saleh Oheida, Mohamed Hamrouni S. Abushhiwa, Helen M.S. Davies(12-2021)
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Carpal Morphometry in Normal Horses and Horses with Carpal Bone Pathology

Relationships between carpal morphology and carpal pathology might assist in identifying horses at risk of carpal pathology. This study was aimed to investigate the hypothesis that carpal morphology is related to the incidence of carpal pathology in racing Thoroughbreds. Ten carpal parameters were used to measure carpal morphology on dorsopalmar (DP) carpal radiographs. Radiographs were collected from 19 experienced Thoroughbred race horses with no evidence of carpal damage(normal)and 72 horses with carpal damage (clinical). All radiographs were at a defined position called zero degrees (ZDP) or within an acceptable rotational range. Based on a P-value of < 0.05 and using the false discovery rate method to control Type I error, two parameters showed significant differences between normal and clinical horses. The angulation of the radial metaphysis and distal radius in relation to the angulation of the radial facet of the third carpal bone (C3) was significantly related to the occurrence of pathology in the bones of the middle carpal joint in Thoroughbred race horses. This study presented important features on DP radiographs that allowed identification of a carpal conformation associated with carpal damage in Thoroughbred race horses. Using such a highly specific, cost-effective and safe technique as a routine for examining yearling Thoroughbreds would assist in identifying horses with carpal conformation unsuited to racing.
Aiman Hussein Saleh Oheida, Abdulrhman Mohamed Salah Alrtib, Mohamed Hamrouni S. Abushhiwa, Christopher J. Philip, Helen M.S. Davies(1-2022)
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Clinical, radiological, and pathological findings of primary nasal osteosarcoma in a Libyan cat

Abstract Background: Although bone tumors are common pathologies in companion animals, limited reports describe nasal osteosarcoma (OSA) in cats. Case description: A case of nasal OSA in a local Libyan cat was admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli–Libya, with nasal swelling and discharges and facial deformity. The radiological findings revealed nasal osteolysis with the absence of evidence of lung metastasis. In addition, fungal growth was not identified in microbiological culture. Furthermore, the pathological examination has grossly revealed a destructed nasal bone due to the presence of a tumor mass, with a mucohemorrhagic nasal discharge and absence of metastasis. OSA was confirmed histopathologically. Conclusion: This report presents the clinical, radiological, and pathological findings of a primary nasal OSA in a Libyan cat with no tumor metastasis to other body organs. Keywords: Cat, Nasal cavity, Primary osteosarcoma.
Mohamed Hamrouni S. Abushhiwa, Seham AL-Abed Hassan AL-Azreg, ٍٍSamer Khalifa Khalil Tmumen, Abdulrhman Mohamed Salah Alrtib, Abdulkareem Khalifa Ali Elbaz, Mahir A. Kubba, Al-Asayed R. Al-Attar, Emad M R Bennour(1-2019)
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Patellar luxation in Hejazi goats

Background: Patellar luxation (PL) is a common orthopedic affection among farm and pet animals with mostly congenital (environmental and/or genetic) background. Aim: We report here the first observation of lateral PL in Hejazi goats bred in Libya. Methods: Five Hejazi goats aged between 4 months and 2 years with severe hind limb lameness were admitted to Al-Sorouh veterinary clinic in Tripoli during the period from 2016 to 2018. The goats were thoroughly examined clinically and radiographically. Two goats were surgically treated, and the other three cases were not because of either the cost limitation or expected poor prognosis. The surgical intervention involved femoral trochlear sulcoplasty, medial joint capsule imbrication, and tibial tuberosity transposition. Results: The clinical examination showed grade III–IV lateral PL. Radiologically, there were unilateral or bilateral, ventrocaudal, and dorsal PLs. Two cases were referred to surgical correction. One case almost restored the normal movement of stifle joint together with a good general status 1 year postsurgery. However, the surgical treatment was not effective in correcting the luxated patella in the second case. Conclusion: Lateral PL is common among orthopedic affections in Hejazi goats in Libya, and its surgical treatment provided a quite convenient approach. An association between inbreeding and the PL was suggested in those cases. Keywords: Clinical and radiological findings, Hejazi goat breed, Inbreeding, Patellar luxation, Surgical treatment.
Mohamed Hamrouni S. Abushhiwa, Abdulrhman Mohamed Salah Alrtib, Taher N. Elmeshreghi, Mouna Abdunnabi Abdunnabi Abdunnabi, Mansur Ennuri Moftah Shmela, Emad M R Bennour(3-2021)
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Patellar luxation in Hejazi goats

Background: Patellar luxation (PL) is a common orthopedic affection among farm and pet animals with mostly congenital (environmental and/or genetic) background. Aim: We report here the first observation of lateral PL in Hejazi goats bred in Libya. Methods: Five Hejazi goats aged between 4 months and 2 years with severe hind limb lameness were admitted to Al-Sorouh veterinary clinic in Tripoli during the period from 2016 to 2018. The goats were thoroughly examined clinically and radiographically. Two goats were surgically treated, and the other three cases were not because of either the cost limitation or expected poor prognosis. The surgical intervention involved femoral trochlear sulcoplasty, medial joint capsule imbrication, and tibial tuberosity transposition. Results: The clinical examination showed grade III–IV lateral PL. Radiologically, there were unilateral or bilateral, ventrocaudal, and dorsal PLs. Two cases were referred to surgical correction. One case almost restored the normal movement of stifle joint together with a good general status 1 year postsurgery. However, the surgical treatment was not effective in correcting the luxated patella in the second case. Conclusion: Lateral PL is common among orthopedic affections in Hejazi goats in Libya, and its surgical treatment provided a quite convenient approach. An association between inbreeding and the PL was suggested in those cases. arabic 4 English 29
Taher N. Elmeshreghi, Mansur Ennuri Moftah Shmela, Mouna Abdunnabi Abdunnabi Abdunnabi, Emad M R Bennour(6-2021)
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FETLOCK JOINT ANGLE MEASUREMENT IN EQUINE FORELIMBS

Front fetlock joint angle (FA) measurement might predict musculoskeletal injury. This study aimed to identify an accurate reliable tool, and develop a consistent method for measuring the FA. Fetlock centre of rotation was identified radiographically. Goniometer measurements were validated on ten vertically fixed post-mortem distal forelimbs by positioning the centre of rotation of the goniometer on the approximate centre of rotation of the joint for five measurements of each FA at three day intervals and one measurement by another person (rater B). Both FA’s of fourteen sound horses standing squarely on a concrete floor were repeated before and after lifting the contralateral limb, which was flexed at the carpus and held at the same level as the carpus of the standing limb. Consistency of measurements was assessed using both fetlock joints of five horses standing squarely on a concrete floor measured six times in random order and then with the contralateral limb lifted using both front fetlocks of eight horses measured five times in random order. The repeatability coefficient was calculated with WinPepi v10.5 software. The centre of rotation was on or around the eminence of the lateral collateral ligament. The repeatability coefficient of the goniometer validation was 4.7°. The mean FA for rater A and B were not significantly different (161.4° versus 162.9°). FA’s were significantly less after lifting the contralateral limbs (P
Abdulrhman M. Alrtib, Helen M S Davies(7-2012)

Successful Anatomical Access for Surgical Removing of the Distal Fracture of Splint Bones in Thoroughbred Horses (Case Study)

Poor performance in athletic horses due to musculoskeletal affections is very common in Libya. Two mature thoroughbred horses suffering from poor performance and history of moderate degree forelimb lameness were admitted to the Aswany Private Equine clinic in Tripoli, Libya. The study is aiming for presenting a simple, time effective, cost effective surgical procedure to treat distal simple splint bone fracture in thoroughbred horses. Horses were examined thoroughly for the common muscle, hoof, and tendons affections. A progressed unilateral left forelimb swelling involving the lateral distal part of the fourth metacarpal bones was noticed. Three radiographs were taken to each horse including latero- medial, dorsolateral-palmaromedial, and palmarolateral-dorsomedial views to assess both splint bones. The radiographs showed that there is a complete fracture involving the distal extremity (button) of the fourth metacarpal bones. Surgical excisions of the fractured part of the splint bones have been decided to treat these horses. To precisely locate the site of the bone fragments, 1.5 mm stainless steel wires were placed over the distal part of splint prior to taking the radiographs. The surgical sites were aseptically prepared, and the horses were then sedated via intravenous injection of xylazine at a dose rate of 1 mg/kg body weight. The site of surgical incision was infiltrated with 2% lidocaine. The bone fragments were then removed after performing the surgical incision. The sharp end at the distal end of the proximal part of the splint bone was then smoothening with a scissor. The surgical incisions were then routinely closed and the post-operative care and radiographs were taken. The surgical incision made complete healing within two weeks. Both horses were followed up for up to three years post-operation, and they did well compared to what has been done in other studies. We concluded that the surgical technique used to treat the two horses with splint bone fracture enrolled in the current study is a simple and effective procedure. arabic 19 English 106
Mohamed H. Abushhiwa, Osma K Sawesi, Khaled A. Milad, Aiman. A. Shalgum, Abdulrhman Mohamed Salah Alrtib(9-2019)