Publication List for Quality and Performance Evaluation Office

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First seroprevalence investigation of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus in Libya

Abstract Background: Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is a vector-borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is transmitted by Culicoides spp. EHDV is a member of the Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family. It shares many morphological and structural characteristics with other members of the genus, such as the bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, and equine encephalosis virus. Aims: The purpose of our study was to investigate the epidemiological situation of EHDV in Libya in order to gain some knowledge about the presence of this virus in the country. Methods: In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of EHDV in Libya, testing 855 blood samples collected during 2015. The samples were collected from domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats) originating from 11 provinces of Libya. Sera were tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and positive samples confirmed by serum neutralization test. Results: The overall seroprevalence of EHDV was estimated to be 4% (95% confidence intervals = 2.8%–5.4%). Small ruminant seroprevalence was significantly (p = 0.016) higher than that found in cattle. Neutralizing antibodies against EHDV-6 were detected in a sheep from the western region of Libya. Conclusion: This study suggests that EHDV has circulated or is circulating in Libya, and sheep could play an important role in the epidemiology of EHDV, and the virus may still be circulating in North Africa. Keywords: EHD, EHDV-6, Seroprevalence, Libya.
Abdusalam Sharef Abdusalam Mahmoud(6-2021)
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Exploiting epidemiological data to understand the epidemiology and factors that influence COVID-19 pandemic in Libya

There were only 75 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reported in Libya by the National Center for Disease Control during the first two months following the first confirmed case on 24 March 2020. However, there was dramatic increase in positive cases from June to now; as of 19 November 2020, approximately 357940 samples have been tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the results have revealed a total number of 76808 confirmed cases, 47587 recovered cases and 1068 deaths. The case fatality ratio was estimated to be 1.40%, and the mortality rate was estimated to be 15.90 in 100000 people. The epidemiological situation markedly changed from mid-July to the beginning of August, and the country proceeded to the cluster phase. COVID19 has spread in almost all Libyan cities, and this reflects the high transmission rate of the virus at the regional level with the highest positivity rates, at an average of 14.54%. Apparently, there is an underestimation of the actual number of COVID-19 cases due to the low testing capacity. Consequently, the Libyan health authority needs to initiate a large-scale case-screening process and enforce testing capacities and contact testing within the time frame, which is not an easy task. Advisably, the Libyan health authority should improve the public health capacities and conduct strict hygienic measures among the societies and vaccinate as many people against COVID-19 to minimize both the case fatality ratio an
Abdusalam Sharef Abdusalam Mahmoud(1-2021)

Covid-19 Vaccination Hesitancy: Preliminary Questionnaire Survey of Knowledge and Attitudes in Libya

Background: The pre-vaccination survey is considered an important tool for assessing and evaluating knowledge, attitudes and determine vaccine hesitancy. Throughout many decades the world had faced a challenge in fighting against the endemic, epidemic, and pandemic diseases that have been emerging and re-emerging special those that constitute a great potential risk on humanity’s life. Still, after more than one year and half of scientific milestones of COVID-19 pandemic, there are many countries scarifying and struggling to mitigate the impacts of SARS-CoV-2 among their societies. Objectives: Our study was conduct to address, assessing and evaluate COVID-19 vaccine literacy (VL) prior to and during the vaccination campaign in Libya. Material and Methods: The cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted during April 2021 one week prior COVID-19 vaccination campaign in Libya. All relevant data was obtained and collected by online and face-to-face interview. The sampling method with an online Microsoft form questionnaire resulted in collecting only 33 valid questionnaires. Further, the survey carried out also during vaccination campaign however, any participants who had already taken the COVID-19 vaccine were not indorsed in questionnaire survey. Results: A total of 243 participants were involved in this study. The overall response rate (45.6%). This study enrolled (58.8%) and (41.2%) of participants from male and female respectively. Considering the age classes, the results revealed that (35%, 18-30 year), (43.6%, 31-50 year), (18.5%, 51-65 year) and (>65 year, 2.9%). The results revealed that, 29.2% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 25%-33.44%) of the respondents were confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection, while and 70.8% (95% CI: 66.56%-75%) participants were not sure if they had contracted the virus. Regarding the recurrent COVID-19 infection, our questionnaire survey reported that, at least 5.8% (95% CI: 3.60%-7.92%) of the respondents had got infected twice by SRAS-CoV-2. Regarding the currently available COVID-19 vaccines (Sputnik V, AstraZeneca and Sinovac) in the country, the vast majority (43.2%) of the participants, they would like to prefer the Sputnik V, followed by (19.3%) AstraZeneca and (2.5%) Sinovac vaccines, while (35%) of the respondents refused to be vaccinated by three of these vaccines that have been provided by the Libyan healthy authorities under the supervision of NCDC. A proximately 33% (95% CI: 28.56%-37.28%) of the respondents refused to be vaccinated due to mistrust in the vaccine safety. Clearly, the vaccine safety was the main cause for the refuse and delay time of the vaccination from the most of the population. Conclusion: Our study highlights that, the vaccine hesitancy is underestimated issue in Libya, and clearly there is misleading and misinformation about SARS-CoV-2 from unauthorized media sources. According to the metadata analysis of high efficacy, safety and successes of COVID-19 vaccines for mitigate and minimize both the case fatality rate (CFT) and transmission rate across the entire of the global, still there is a controversies around potential safety concerns of the COVID-19 vaccines. Urgently, the Libyan healthy authority needs to enforce the public health education about vaccine safety, and Libyan healthy authorities should be implement an effective vaccination strategies that complement with international standard criteria for the vaccination policy to improve the vaccination efficacy and the vaccine coverage rate. Consequently, The Libya national deployment and vaccination plan for the COVID-19 vaccine should implement National Immunization Technical Advisory Group (NITAG) in every municipality for collecting and processing information, and producing periodic reports during COVID-19 vaccination campaign.
Abdusalam Sharef Abdusalam Mahmoud(6-2021)

Preliminary Survey to Understand the Epidemiology of COVID-19 and Its Socio-economic Impacts in Libya

Background: During the last three decades there are many viral infections emerging and re-emerge with high socio-economic and public health impacts worldwide. The Coronavirus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China in late December 2019. Later, on 30th Jan 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) has constituted the COVID-19 as a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). Objectives: To understand the epidemiological patterns and assessing potential socio-economic impacts of the COVID-19 is critical and how to determine these impacts on social life is considered fundamental. Therefore, the present preliminary survey was conducted firstly to understand the epidemiological situation of COVID-19 in the country, and secondly to determine the socioeconomic impacts of the COVID-19 among Libyan population to build up strategies concerning socio-economic response by the technical team committee. arabic 16 English 86
Abdusalam Sharef Abdusalam Mahmoud(2-2021)
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Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of COVID-19 Among Medical Staff Doctors at Tripoli University Teaching Hospitals

The Corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a new global pandemic. World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a public health emergency of international concern. Health Care Works (HCWs) are the primary sectors in contact with suspected patients. Thus, the knowledge, attitudes and practices of HCWs towards COVID-19 remain unclear. The objectives: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Medical doctors about COVID-19 at Tripoli University Teaching Hospitals. Methods: This crosssectional survey was conducted from April 30 to 29 May, the week immediately after first case of COVID-19 reported in Libya. A pilot trail questionnaire was distributed and filled by taking the relevant information from medical staff doctors working at various medical and surgical units. The data coded according to variable and analysed by SPSS. Results: Of (250) participants, a total (100) of Medical staff doctors completed the surve\ (response rate 40%). The participants¶ qualification was (64%) MBBS, (14%) Master degree, (16%) PhD and (6%) professors. the mean age 35 years. (42%) were male and (58%) female participants. Most of the medical staff doctors (70%) were GPs, (22%) were specialists, (6%) were internship doctors and (2%) were consultants. Questionnaire survey revealed that (18%) of the respondents reported working experience of >20 years. The survey was considered if the Medical doctor in frontline healthcare workers (FLHCWs), our results demonstrate that, only 30% of medical staff doctors was provided care of COVID-19 patients while 70% was not in the FLHCWs. Most participants (79%) reported that no specific treatment of COVID-19. A significant proportion of medical doctors (68%) had good knowledge of the transmission, diagnostic method & prevention of COVID-19. According to the case report definition of WHO and ECDC, the survey results showed (69%) of the respondents reported that, the test should be repeated if the first RT-PCR results were negative from the patient represent the typical clinical symptoms of COVID-19. Our questionnaire survey revealed that (68%) of the medical staff doctors¶ participants agree that wearing face masks prevent the infection while (32%) reported that wearing face masks could not prevent the infection. Overall, Medical staff doctors in Tripoli University Teaching Hospital showed expected level of knowledge and attitudes about COVID-19. The findings survey suggests that due to the limited medical staff doctor¶s representative, it must be cautious when generalizing these findings to other medical doctors residing in other regions of the country. As intentional threat of COVID-19 continuous to emerge, the results survey highlights the importance of continuous health educational programs from the government and national health authorities that well improve and updated knowledge of the HCWs regarding COVID-19, which also result in increasing their attitudes and practices towards COVID-19. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings. arabic 17 English 99
ِAbdusalam Sharef (12-2020)

Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Escherichia coli Faecal Isolates of Cattle

A total of 154 of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates were isolated from faecal specimens of healthy cattle (n=100). Serotyping of 154 E. coli isolates indicated that 112 (72.72%) isolates were typeable, 28 (18.18%) untypeable and 14 (9.09%) were rough. The most predominant serotype observed was O22 followed by O56, O60, O120 and O1. Antibiogram pattern using a total of 25 different antibiotics indicated that high resistant was present against clindamycin, metronidazole and penicillin followed by cephalothin, neomycin, kanamycin, cephalexin, streptomycin, furazolidone and tetracycline antibiotics. The amplification of tet(A) and tet(B) resistant determinants by PCR resulted in generation of 372bp and 228, respectively. The tet(A) gene was predominant gene compared to tet(B) gene. This study using pheno-genotypic characterization indicated the presence of antimicrobial resistant E. coliisolates amongst healthy cattle, emphasizing that effective strategy should be applied to persist the efficiency along with ideal usage of novel antibiotics though minimizing the risk of antibiotic resistant bacteria. arabic 11 English 82
Abdusalam Sharef Abdusalam Mahmoud(3-2020)
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Sero-Prevalence Investigation of Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR) and Associated Risk Factors in Libya During 2015-2016

Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is considered one of the most important transboundary animal diseases (TADs) with socio-economic impacts on national and international levels. During 2015-2016 a total of 690 serum samples were collected from unvaccinated domestic ruminants of which 555 sheep, and 135 goats representing teen provinces distributed in four Libyan branches (Green Mountain, Benghazi, West Mountain and Sabha). The sample were analysed at IZSAM, Teramo, Italy, by using competitive ELISA, IDvet innovative diagnostics (IDvet, 310 rue Louis Pasteur-34790 Grabels, France). The overall sero-prevalence rate (SPR) of PPR antibodies was estimated to be 41% (95% CL: 36% to 46%) among sheep and 39% (95% CL: 28% to 45%) among goat. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the probability of differences observed among SPR of infection. The results showed that the SPR of PPR was significantly (P= 0.015) higher in adult animals 41% (95% CL= 37%-46%) than in the young 24% (95% CL= 17%- 32%). The highest SPR 75% (95% CL= 61%-85%) was recorded in Sabha province (Southern Libya) which highlighted statistically difference (P= 0.00001). The preliminary results of the present study could be useful to better focus on specific area of Libya to improve understand and evaluate the risk factors for disease spreading and to plan disease control activities as requested by FAO/OIE (PPR Global Control and Eradication Strategy). arabic 19 English 100
Abdusalam Sharef Abdusalam Mahmoud(1-2020)

Seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in women from Tripoli, Libya

Aims: To determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in women from Aljalla Maternity and Gynaecology Hospital (AMGH) and to evaluate the association between the infection and potential risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at AMGH in Tripoli during the year 2012. Data on potential risk factors were collected by a structured questionnaire and results of the test. The output data of questionnaire were used to assess potential risk factors for positive outcome. All sera (n = 500) was screened against ToxoG, by using the Vidas machine automated enzyme-linked florescent immunoassay. The association between the outcome variables and its potential risk factors were screened in a multivariate analysis. A p-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: The overall seroprevalence was estimated to be 50.8% with 95% confidence interval (CI) (46.42%–55.18%). The results revealed that T. gondii infection is highly prevalent, and eating habits (consuming raw meat and/or raw vegetables or fruits) were highly significant associated in multivariable analysis. Expectedly, a significantly [odds ratio (OR):1.712; p =
Abdusalam Sharef Abdusalam Mahmoud(1-2019)
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