Dr. MohamedAhmed

Department of Microbiology & Parasitology Faculty of Vet Medicine

Full name

Dr. Mohamed Omar Basher Ahmed


Doctor of Phiosophy

Academic Rank



Mohamed O. B. Ahmed is a staff members at the department of microbiology and parasitology, faculty of veterinary medicine. He is currently a professor working at the university since 26-09-2007. He teaches several subjects in his scientific domain and has produced several publications in the field of medicine.

Contact Information


Doctor of Phiosophy

Zoonotic diseases and molecular epidemiology
University of Liverpool
12 ,2005


Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus species isolated from cats and dogs

Abstract Background: Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are an emerging global problem with serious public health concern. Aims: This study investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of commensal Staphylococcus species isolated from healthy and clinical cats and dogs. Methods: Nasal swab samples were collected from animals and processed using selective and semi-selective mediums. Presumptive isolates were subjected to biochemical testing and analyzed using the Phoenix automated identification and susceptibility testing system. PCRs protocols were used to screen for mecA and pvl genes. Results: In total, 151 pets (103 cats and 48 dogs) were enrolled, of which 14 dogs (29%) and 24 cats (23%) were colonized with various Staphylococcus species mainly originated from healthy animals. A total of 38 staphylococci isolates were collected and distributed between 24 coagulase-negative and 14 coagulase-positive staphylococci. Only 13 staphylococci strains were identified as MRS, out of which only five isolates expressed that the mecA gene exclusively originated from healthy pets. Conclusion: This is the first study reporting the prevalence and colonization status of staphylococci species and MRS strains isolated from cats and dogs in Libya. The study reports important information of medical and clinical importance on antimicrobial and multidrug resistance of different staphylococci strains, particularly the coagulase negative species. Keywords: Coagulase-negative staphylococci; Libya; Staphylococcus; mecA gene; pet animals.
Mohamed O. Ahmed, Et Al.(1-2021)
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Familial Clustering and Re-infection with 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV, SARS-CoV-2) in the Libyan Community

Since its emergence as a major cause of coronavirus pneumonia, SARS-CoV-2 has spread quickly all over the world. The pandemic has affected all aspects of life and continues to spread despite the stringent control measures. Meanwhile, scientists all around the world have been scrambling to ascertain how the virus spreads and find out the effective ways to put this outbreak quickly under control, focusing on both persistent strict domestic interventions and vigilance against exogenous imported cases (1,2). Several cases of family clusters have been reported and evidence of person-to-person transmission has been confirmed. Indicating the importance of early detection and isolation of infected patients (3,4). Hence then special caution is needed for asymptomatic patients particularly for family members.
Daw MA, Ahmed MO, ET AL.(1-2021)
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The epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in Libya during the ongoing-armed conflict

COVID-19 can have even more dire consequences in countries with ongoing armed conflict. Libya, the second largest African country, has been involved in a major conflict since 2011. This study analyzed the epidemiological situation of the COVID-19 pandemic in Libya, examined the impact of the armed conflict in Libya on the spread of the pandemic, and proposes strategies for dealing with the pandemic during this conflict. We collected the available information on all COVID-19 cases in the different regions of Libya, covering the period from March 25th to May 25th 2020. The cumulative number of cases and the daily new cases are presented in a way to illustrate the patterns and trends of COVID-19, and the effect of the ongoing armed conflict was assessed regionally. A total of 698 cases of COVID-19 were reported in Libya within a period of three months. The number of cases varied from one region to another and was affected by the fighting. The largest number of cases were reported in the southern part of the country, which has been severely affected by the conflict in comparison to the eastern and western parts of the country. This study describes the epidemiological pattern of COVID-19 in Libya and how it has been affected by the ongoing-armed conflict. This conflict seems to have hindered access to populations and there by masked he true dimensions of the pandemic. Hence, efforts should be combined to combat these consequences.
Daw MA, Ahmed MO, ET AL.(11-2020)
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How are countries prepared to combat the COVID-19 pandemic during the armed conflict? the case of Libya

Since its emergence, COVID-19 has greatly affected all aspects of life, and no country can be considered safe. Furthermore, it has resulted in great consequences, politically, economically, socially, and even ethically, which will be difficult to contain. Even highly developed countries have struggled to tackle this pandemic, and not all COVID-19 death cases were accurately reported. Strikingly, countries that reported the lowest numbers of cases at the early stage of the pandemic are the poorest and have the least resilient health systems, often ravished by civil war such as Libya, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen [1]. In Libya, the ability to react to the crisis is in doubt because of civil war and internal disarray. The health care system has been seriously affected, the country is divided, and two counterattack governments were appointed. The Ready Score parameter recommended by the WHO's Joint External Evaluation (JEE) applied to determine, stop, and prevent epidemics
Daw MA, Ahmed MO, ET AL.(1-2021)
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Spatiotemporal Distribution of Tuberculosis and COVID-19 During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Libya

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has posed serious health and economic threats, particularly in developing countries. The presentation of the disease is highly variable and could be easily confused with other respiratory tract infections.1 In Africa, tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top causes of mortality and has a presentation conspicuously similar to the current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. During the past coronavirus epidemics like SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERSCoV), co-infections with TB had posed a major threat to the spread of the disease. Hence, the association between COVID-19 and TB cannot be ruled out, and more evidence should be gathered to increase our understanding of the dynamics of both diseases during the spread of the pandemic.2 Therefore, it is important to understand the distribution and aggregation degree of TB and COVID-19 and to follow up the spatial trends of both of them during the pandemic period. In this study, we aimed to analyze the spatiotemporal variation and the trends of TB and COVID-19 during the pandemic at the national and regional levels. This will provide more information and thus help implement proper strategies to combat the burden of the pandemic
Daw MA, Ahmed MO, ET AL.(11-2020)
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COVID-19 and African Immigrants in North Africa: A Hidden Pandemic in a Vulnerable Setting

Since being declared a pandemic in March 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the disease known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has brought difficult situations for citizens of nations worldwide. The effects, however, may be more severe for vulnerable communities, such as immigrants, who are already in desperate situations and under deteriorating conditions. There are still very limited data on how the pandemic is impacting migrant communities. Immigrant camps foster an environment that poses a great threat to the health of their inhabitants, especially at the time of a pandemic. Overcrowding, poor sanitation, inadequate health care, and difficulty containing contagious diseases are well documented in African immigration detention centers. Furthermore, they are unlikely to take priority in a moment in which governments are mobilizing all resources to care for their citizens. Their situation is even more complicated if they are hosted in corridors plagued by war, as in North Africa
Daw MA, Ahmed MO, ET AL.(10-2020)
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Whole Genome Sequence Analysis of the First Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Isolates from a Libyan Hospital in Tripoli

Abstract The purpose of the study was to investigate the molecular characteristics and genetic relatedness of the first reported cases of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from the Tripoli Medical Center, Libya. In total, 43 VRE isolates were obtained from various clinical sites throughout the years 2013-2014, including 40 vanA-type and 2 vanB-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates and 1 vanC1-type Enterococcus gallinarum. Of the 42 E. faecium, 19 isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing. Core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) analysis revealed three sequence clusters (SCs) of clonally related isolates, which were linked to different hospital wards. The first two VRE isolates, isolated early 2013 from patients in the medical intensive care unit, were grouped in SC1 (MLST [ST] 78, vanB) and differed in only 3 of 1423 cgMLST alleles. The SC2 (n = 16, special care baby unit, neonatal intensive care unit, pediatric surgery ward, and oncology ward) and SC3 (n = 1, antenatal ward) were all ST80 vanA-VRE, but the single SC3 isolate differed in 233 alleles compared with SC2. Within SC2, isolates differed in 1-23 alleles. Comparison with a larger database of E. faecium strains indicated that all isolates clustered within the previously defined hospital clade A1. A combination of Resfinder and mlplasmid analysis identified the presence of resistance genes on different plasmid predicted genetic elements among different SCs. In conclusion, this study documents the first isolates causing outbreaks with VRE in the Libyan health care system. Further surveillance efforts using molecular typing methods to monitor spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria in the Libyan health care system are urgently needed.
Mohamed O. Ahmed, Et Al.(10-2020)
Publisher's website

Analysis of biomedical publications in Libya from 2003 to 2013

A relatively low scientific research output is not unique to Libya and unfortunately persists as compared to more economically developed countries.[1],[2] Recent data have revealed the very low-productivity rate of research from Libya, compared to other Arab and North African nations.[1],[3],[4] In 2003, Libya's hierarchal ranking among 20 Arabic countries was 12th for annual publication rate, 10th for publication rate according to population, and 15th for publication rate according to Gross Domestic Product (GDP).[5] As Libya undergoes geopolitical and socioeconomic upheavals, there is certainly a unique opportunity for improving all aspects of its educational and economic infrastructures. The post-2011 era and the current civil upheaval have, however, resulted in disrupted infrastructure, social incoherence, and a fragmented society, affecting every aspect of daily life of its citizens. Libya's research output was investigated by analyzing the collective peer-reviewed publications of biomedical research from Libya, with a focus on institutions of higher education and the medical sector revealing important knowledge and novel scientometric data.[1]
Mohamed O. Ahmed, Et Al.(5-2019)
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An evolving research culture: Analysis of biomedical publications from Libya, 2003–13

Understanding the publication output of a country’s biomedical research can provide information for strengthening its policies, economy, and educational systems. Yet, this is the first bibliometric study to date to analyze and provide an in-depth discussion of the biomedical research productivity from Libyan academic institutions. The biomedical research productivity of higher education institutes and affiliated hospitals from Libya, with a focus on the higher education sector, was analyzed and discussed for the period of 2003–13 using the PubMed database. A questionnaire online survey was also developed to obtain opinions of Libyan scientists on productivity status and quality of research output. A total of 345 peer-reviewed articles were included in the analysis and were authored by researchers in the cities of Benghazi (32%), Tripoli (29%), Al-Zawiya (9%), Al-Bayda (8%), Sabha (3%), Misrata (3%), and Al-Khoms (1%). The papers included co-authors and/or corresponding authors from over 40 other countries were published in 179 journals covering a broad range of biomedical topics. Questionnaire (44% response rate) indicated research is largely self-funded. Information along with accurate, comprehensive, and transparent metrics can be applied to aid governmental and nongovernmental institutions to develop stable infrastructures for academic communities to achieve effective research performance and innovation.
Mohamed O. Ahmed, Et Al.(10-2017)
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Identification of phenolic compounds, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of raisin extracts

In this study, antibacterial, antioxidant and phenolic compounds of raisin extracts was evaluated. Different solvent extraction methods were utilized to extract phenolic compounds from raisin. The phenolic compounds of raisin extracts was determined using HPLC and three compounds were found, catechin, quercetin and rutin. The antibacterial activity of the acetonic extract was tested against four bacterial pathogens viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli using both disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. The acetonic extract exhibited the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition of 14mm and the MIC of 25 mg/ml. However, there was a little activity against E. coli and S. typhimurium. The methanolic extract showed good antioxidant activity as indicated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay (DPPH). In conclusion, raisin contains potent phenolic compounds and their application might function as promising natural preservative and antimicrobial agents in food industry and also good antioxidant food that helps to minimize the risk of degenerative diseases. arabic
Yousef M Abouzeed, Ahmed MO Et Al. (12-2018)
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Colistin-resistant carbapenemase-producing isolates among Klebsiella spp. and Acinetobacter baumannii in Tripoli, Libya

The emergence of acquired carbapenemases is a serious threat to public health worldwide, forcing the use of last-resort antibiotics such as polymyxins. Use of such molecules had recently led to the emergence of colistin-resistant carbapenemase-producing isolates, leaving only a few therapeutic options for the near future. Here we report the identification of colistin-resistant isolates among a collection carbapenemase-producing Enter- obacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii isolates.
Nicolas Kieffer , Ahmed MO et al.(6-2018)
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Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci: A Review of Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms and Perspectives of Human and Animal Health

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are both of medical and public health importance associated with serious multidrug-resistant infections and persistent colonization. Enterococci are opportunistic environmental inhabitants with a remarkable adaptive capacity to evolve and transmit antimicrobial-resistant determinants. The VRE gene operons show distinct genetic variability and apparently continued evolution leading to a variety of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and various environmental and livestock reservoirs for the most common van genes. Such complex diversity renders a number of important therapeutic options including "last resort antibiotics" ineffective and poses a particular challenge for clinical management. Enterococci resistance to glycopeptides and multidrug resistance warrants attention and continuous monitoring.
Mohamed O. Ahmed , Keith E Baptiste (6-2017)
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