المنشورات العلمية لـقسم أمراض الدواجن والأسماك

احصائيات منشورات قسم أمراض الدواجن والأسماك

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الكشف عن البكتيريا السبحية )ستربتوكوكس( الشائعة التي تصيب اسماك المرجان في المنطقة الساحلية لطرابلس ليبيا Detection of the Most Common Streptococci Affecting Seabream Fish at the Coastal Area of Tripoli, Libya

الإلقاء المستمر لمياه الصرف الصحى في المنطقة الساحلية للبحر المتوسط بمدينة طرابلس و التى تمتد من تاجوراء الى جنزور قد ادى الى حوث تأثيرات سلبية مستمرة على كل من الأحياء المائية و المستهلك بصورة اصبحت ظاهر في تلك المنطقة الساحلية. لقد عرف التلوث الكيميائي المرتبط بتركيبة الصرف الصحى بتأثيره الشديد على جهاز المناعة في الاسماك مما يؤدى الى زيادة في قباليتها للإصابة بالبكتيريا المرضية. في الدراسة الحالية تم عزل أربعة عترات من الميكروب السبحى "ستربتوكوكس" من أسماك المرجان العادى التى تم تجميعها من المنطقة الساحلية لشاطئ طرابلس في المنطقة الممتدة من تاجوراء الى جنزور. توضح النتائج ان ميكروب ستربتوكوكس ايناى (Streptococcus iniae) كان الأكثر شيوعا فى فصلى الصيف و الربيع يليهم على الترتيب ميكروب ستربتوكوكس ديسجلاكتيا (Streptococcus dysgalactiae) أما ميكروب ستربتوكوس فوكى (Streptococcus phocae) فقد كان الأكثر شيوعا في موسم الشتاء.

Abstract

: The continuous dumping of municipal sewage into the coastal zone of the Mediterranean Sea has been reported to have greater negative impacts on both aquatic animals as well as human consumer. The chemical pollutants in the sewage composites would have deleterious damaging effects on the fish immune system with consequent vulnerability to bacterial invasions. In the current study, four Streptococcal bacterial species were successfully isolated from the Common Pandora fish (Pagellus erythrinus) collected from the coastal zone of Tripoli through the area from Tajourah to Janzour localities. Strept iniae was the most prevalent Streptococci in examined fish during summer and spring seasons followed by Strept dysgalactiae then Enterococus fecalis. Streptococcus phocae was the most prevalently isolated Streptococci from examined fish during the winter season, while Enterococcus fecalis was recorded to be the second on the list.
طارق دخيل حسن (2015)

الكشف عن بكتيريا الفيبريو الشائعة التي تصيب اسماك المرجان في المنطقةالساحلية بطرابلس ليبيا

بكتيريا الفيبريو وهي مجموعة من البكتيريا سالبة الجرام التي تصيب في الأساس أسماك المياه المالحة والشروب. بكتيريا الفيبريو توجد بصورة كثيفة في مياه البحر الملوثة و خصوصا تلك الملوثة بمياه الصرف الصحي. في الدراسة الحالية تم عزل وتصنيف عدد أربعة عترات من ميكروب الفيبريو من أسماك المرجان العادي التي تم تجميعها من المنطقة الساحلية لطرابلس خلال موسم 2014 حتي موسم الربيع 2015 . تم تحديد هوية العترات المعزولة والتأكيد علي انها ميكروب V. Parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio alginolyticus وباستخدام بعض التقنيات البيوكيميائية التقليدية و تقنية API20E. وأكدت الاختبارات اتفاق الخصائص البيوكيميائية مع الخصائص لقياسية لذلك الميكروب و المسجلة في كتاب بيرجز المرجعي لتصنيف البكتيريا (Bergey’s Manual Bactriology) بالبحث تبين أن ميكروب V. fluvialis سجل أعلى نسبة عزل خلال موسم صيف 2014 (33.33%) وربيع 2015 (27.77%) بينما مثل ميكروب V. ulnificus اقل نسبة عزل في موسم صيف 2014 بنسبة (4.44%) وربيع 2015 (5.55%). في موسم شتاء 014 مثلت V. Parahaemolyticus أعلى نسبة إصابة (20%) بينما مثل ميكروب V. alginolyticus أقل نسبة إصابة (2.22%). بالنسبة لاختبار الحساسية وجد أن معظم ميكروب V. alginolyticus و V. Parahaemolyticus هي حساسة لكل من الدوكسيسيكلين و البوليميكسين و مقاومة لكل من الاوكسيتيتر اسكين و الفلورفينيكول و الا مبيسيلين. و على الرغم من ذلك فإن ميكروب V. fluvialis أثبت حساسية كل المضادات الحيوية المستخدمة باستثناء الأمبيسيلين بينما أثبتت الاختبارات حساسية ميكروب Vibrio vulnificus لكل من الدوكسيسيكلين و البوليميكسينو الاوكسيتيتر اسكلين و مقاومة للفلورفينيكول و السلفاميثاكسازول- تراميثوبريم و الأمبيسلين و الذي يظهر اختلافا ملحوظا عن باقي العزلات البكتيرية. و في المجمل فإن النتائج تعطى مؤشر عن ازدياد مستمر للتلوث بمياه الصرف الصحي في معظم أماكن تجميع العينات في المنطقة الممتدة من تاجوراء حتى جنزور على الشاطئ الغربي لمدينة طرابلس ليبيا.

Abstract

: Vibrios are a group of Gram negative septicemic bacteria that mainly affect marine and estuarine fishes. Vibrios are ubiquitous in environmentally polluted seawater with especial reference to municipal sewage. In the current study, four main species of Vibrios have been frequently isolated / identified from the Common Pandora fish (Pagellus erythrinus) collected through summer 2014 to spring 2015. The identities of the retrieved isolates were confirmed as Vibrio vulnificus (V.vulnificus), Vibrio Parahaemolyticus (V. Parahaemolyticus), Vibrio fluvialis (V.fluvialis) and Vibrio alginolyticus (V. alginolyticus) depending on their morphochemical results obtained from the adopted conventional and semi-automated biochemical tests (API20E). All isolates were consistent with the standard criteria of the aforementioned Vibrio species stated by the Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology. The research has revealed that V. fluvialis was the highest isolated species (33.33%) in Summer 2014 and Spring 2015(27.77%), while V. vulnificus was the lowest isolated through summer 2014 (4.44%) and spring 2015(5.55%) . In winter season 2014, V. Parahaemolyticus presented the highest percentage of infection (20%), while V. alginolyticus was associated with the lowest percentage of infection (2.22%). Antibiogram has revealed that most of the retrieved V. alginolyticus and V.Parahaemolyticus were sensitive to Doxycyclin and Polymyxin and resistant to Oxytetracyclin, Florfenicol and Ampicillin. However V. fluvialis isolate were sensitive to all tested antibiotics with the exception of Ampicillin. Interestingly V.vulnificus were sensitive to Doxycyclin, Polymyxin, Oxytetracyclin, while resistant to Florfenicol, Sulfamethoxzole -trimethoprim and Ampicillin, which is remarkably different from the antibiogram recorded for other retrieved Vibrio species. Conclusively, the achieved results throughout the current study is indicative of a consistently growing municipal sewage pollution across the sampling sites extending from Tajoura to Janzour at the western coast of Tripoli, Libya.
محمد بشير منصور التكالي (2015)

Sero-prevalence and epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants in Libya

We conducted a cross-sectional study during 2013 to quantify the serological prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) infection and to investigate host factors associated with PPR infection in small ruminants in Libya. A two-stage sampling design was carried out. A total number of 148 flocks owning at least 100 heads each were randomly selected. Sixteen to forty-eight samples were collected from each selected flock. A total number of 3,508 serum samples from unvaccinated animals were collected and analysed at IZSLER Brescia, Italy, by using competitive ELISA, IDvet innovative diagnostics (IDvet 310, France). The overall serological prevalence among SR was 33% (95% CI: 31.4–34.5). Significant differences between the prevalence in the geographical branches were observed. The lowest prevalence level was observed in Zawiyah branch (16.1%), whereas the highest value was obtained for the Sabha branch (56.8%). Considering the age, a serological prevalence of 24.7%, 31.5% and 42.1% was observed in SR
Abdulwahab Kammon, A. Dayhum, M. Sharif, I. Eldaghayes, P. Calistri, M. L. Danzetta, D. Di Sabatino , A. Petrini, G. Ferrari, S. Grazioli, G. Pezzoni, E. Brocchi(3-2017)
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The Future Use of Medicinal Plants as Alternatives to Antibiotics in Animal Health and Production

Editorial arabic 15 English 83
Abdulwahab Kammon(9-2017)
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Identification of phenolic compounds, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of raisin extracts

Abstract In this study, antibacterial, antioxidant and phenolic compounds of raisin extracts was evaluated. Different solvent extraction methods were utilized to extract phenolic compounds from raisin. The phenolic compounds of raisin extracts was determined using HPLC and three compounds were found, catechin, quercetin and rutin. The antibacterial activity of the acetonic extract was tested against four bacterial pathogens viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli using both disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. The acetonic extract exhibited the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition of 14mm and the MIC of 25 mg/ml. However, there was a little activity against E. coli and S. typhimurium. The methanolic extract showed good antioxidant activity as indicated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay (DPPH). In conclusion, raisin contains potent phenolic compounds and their application might function as promising natural preservative and antimicrobial agents in food industry and also good antioxidant food that helps to minimize the risk of degenerative diseases. arabic 11 English 86
Abdulwahab Kammon, Yousef M. Abouzeed, Faraj Zgheel, Abdurrezagh Abdalla Elfahem, Mohammed Saad Almagarhe, Abdulgader Dhawi, Abdulkareem Elbaz, Murad A. Hiblu, Mohamed O. Ahmed (12-2018)
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Molecular detection and characterisation of avian paramyxovirus type 1 in backyard chickens and pigeons in Alzintan city of Libya

Abstract Avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) is the causative agent of Newcastle Disease which affects many species of birds leading to high mortality and heavy economic losses among poultry industry worldwide. Newcastle disease is endemic in Libya with frequent outbreaks occurring in commercial and backyard poultry. APMV-1 was isolated and characterised during the outbreak in 2013. In current study, we report another Newcastle disease outbreak that emerged in backyard chickens and pigeons in Alzintan city on March 2015. Two viruses were detected in cloacal swabs from backyard chickens, namely APMV-1/Libya/15VIR5368/2015 and APMV-1/Libya/15VIR5371/2015. Genetic sequencing of these viruses revealed the presence of velogenic APMV-1 belonging to genotype VIIi genetically similar to the viruses isolated on 2013. During the same period, neurologic signs and mortality were noticed in pigeons. Samples of brain tissue were tested by rRT-PCR which revealed presence of velogenic APMV-1 belonging to lineage 4A (GKKRKR*F Lin.4A) or genotype VIb. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the detection and molecular characterization of APMV-1 in a pigeon in Libya. The phylogenetic analysis of the F gene showed 86% identity to isolates from Iran and Egypt. This study may indicate the circulation of APMV-1 within backyard birds and pigeons which may present a threat to commercial poultry. Considering these findings, vaccination of backyard birds and pigeons and further epidemiological studies are strongly strongly recommended. arabic 19 English 111
Abdulwahab Kammon, Isabella Monne, Abdulatif Asheg , Giovanni Cattoli (1-2018)
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Effect of Some Organic Acids on Body Weight, Immunity and Cecal Bacterial Count of Chicken during Heat Stress

Abstract Objective: The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of heat stress on body weight, immune response and cecal bacterial count in parent broiler chickens and to determine the ameliorating effects of some organic acids to overcome heat stress. Materials and Methods: Day-old, 1920 male broiler parent chicks were used in a 2×2 factorial completely randomized design. The experimental chicks were randomly and equally distributed into 2 major groups (960 chicks each) which further divided into 4 subgroups (480 chicks each) with 8 replicates. Two subgroups were exposed to heat (H) at 35EC from 22-42 days of age and the other two subgroups was lift normal. Four replicates in each subgroup were given organic acids (OA) in drinking water at the first week, days 19-27 and last week of age whereas the other 4 replicates in the same subgroup were given normal drinking water. Results: Heat stress caused significant decrease in body weight, coliforms count and serum lysozyme level at 5th week of age. The body weight has been significantly ameliorated by organic acids. Deleterious effects of heat stress on immunity has been confirmed by the significant decrease of bursa/body weight ratio and total leukocyte count (TLC) at 4th week of age. The bacterial count was significantly increased in the group exposed to heat at 5th week of age. Conclusion: It is concluded that heat stress has deleterious effects on chickens and organic acids has significantly ameliorated some of these effects. arabic 18 English 91
Abdulwahab Kammon, Samia Alzentani, Omar Tarhuni , Abdulatif Asheg(5-2019)
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In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Clove Oil against Gram Negative Bacteria Isolated from Chickens

Abstract The use of antibiotics as growth promotors to enhance animal production is banned in many countries around the world due to antimicrobial resistance. There is a need therefore, for new alternatives to antibiotics in medicine and veterinary medicine practices. The antibacterial activity of clove oil and some antibiotics were tested in vitro against three isolates of E. coli {1 avian pathogenic (E. coli 6.2) and 2 non-pathogenic (E. coli 6.1 and E. coli X)}, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella spp., by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. All bacteria tested showed intermediate susceptibility to clove oil using disk diffusion method except the non-pathogenic E.coli 6.1. The inhibition zones measured were 0mm, 12mm, 13mm, 15mm and 15mm for E. coli 6.1, E. coli 6.2, E. coli X, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella spp., respectively. E. coli 6.1 was resistant to Ampicillin, and Lincomycin with multi antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of 0.2. E. coli 6.2 was resistant to Ampicillin, Doxycyclin and Lincomycin with MAR index of 0.3. E. coli X was resistant to Ampicillin and Colistin with MAR index of 0.2. Salmonella enteritidis was resistant to Amoxycillin/Clavulinic acid, Ampicillin and Lincomycin with MAR index of 0.3. Salmonella spp was susceptible only to Neomycin but was resistant to 9 out of 10 antibiotics with very high MAR index of 0.9. The MICs of clove oil were 6.25mg/ml for the avian pathogenic E. coli and 3.12mg/ml for non-pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella spp. and 12.5mg/ml for Salmonella enteritidis. It is concluded that clove oil has promising antibacterial activity and more studies are needed to investigate its in vivo activity as alternative to antibiotics in poultry arabic 13 English 85
Abdulwahab Kammon, Ali Almaeyoufi , Abdulatif Asheg(7-2019)
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