المنشورات العلمية لـكلية الطب البيطري

احصائيات منشورات كلية الطب البيطري

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    وثيقة

Sero-prevalence and epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants in Libya

We conducted a cross-sectional study during 2013 to quantify the serological prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) infection and to investigate host factors associated with PPR infection in small ruminants in Libya. A two-stage sampling design was carried out. A total number of 148 flocks owning at least 100 heads each were randomly selected. Sixteen to forty-eight samples were collected from each selected flock. A total number of 3,508 serum samples from unvaccinated animals were collected and analysed at IZSLER Brescia, Italy, by using competitive ELISA, IDvet innovative diagnostics (IDvet 310, France). The overall serological prevalence among SR was 33% (95% CI: 31.4–34.5). Significant differences between the prevalence in the geographical branches were observed. The lowest prevalence level was observed in Zawiyah branch (16.1%), whereas the highest value was obtained for the Sabha branch (56.8%). Considering the age, a serological prevalence of 24.7%, 31.5% and 42.1% was observed in SR
Abdulwahab Kammon, A. Dayhum, M. Sharif, I. Eldaghayes, P. Calistri, M. L. Danzetta, D. Di Sabatino , A. Petrini, G. Ferrari, S. Grazioli, G. Pezzoni, E. Brocchi(3-2017)
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The Future Use of Medicinal Plants as Alternatives to Antibiotics in Animal Health and Production

Editorial arabic 15 English 83
Abdulwahab Kammon(9-2017)
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Identification of phenolic compounds, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of raisin extracts

Abstract In this study, antibacterial, antioxidant and phenolic compounds of raisin extracts was evaluated. Different solvent extraction methods were utilized to extract phenolic compounds from raisin. The phenolic compounds of raisin extracts was determined using HPLC and three compounds were found, catechin, quercetin and rutin. The antibacterial activity of the acetonic extract was tested against four bacterial pathogens viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli using both disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. The acetonic extract exhibited the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition of 14mm and the MIC of 25 mg/ml. However, there was a little activity against E. coli and S. typhimurium. The methanolic extract showed good antioxidant activity as indicated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay (DPPH). In conclusion, raisin contains potent phenolic compounds and their application might function as promising natural preservative and antimicrobial agents in food industry and also good antioxidant food that helps to minimize the risk of degenerative diseases. arabic 11 English 86
Abdulwahab Kammon, Yousef M. Abouzeed, Faraj Zgheel, Abdurrezagh Abdalla Elfahem, Mohammed Saad Almagarhe, Abdulgader Dhawi, Abdulkareem Elbaz, Murad A. Hiblu, Mohamed O. Ahmed (12-2018)
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Molecular detection and characterisation of avian paramyxovirus type 1 in backyard chickens and pigeons in Alzintan city of Libya

Abstract Avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) is the causative agent of Newcastle Disease which affects many species of birds leading to high mortality and heavy economic losses among poultry industry worldwide. Newcastle disease is endemic in Libya with frequent outbreaks occurring in commercial and backyard poultry. APMV-1 was isolated and characterised during the outbreak in 2013. In current study, we report another Newcastle disease outbreak that emerged in backyard chickens and pigeons in Alzintan city on March 2015. Two viruses were detected in cloacal swabs from backyard chickens, namely APMV-1/Libya/15VIR5368/2015 and APMV-1/Libya/15VIR5371/2015. Genetic sequencing of these viruses revealed the presence of velogenic APMV-1 belonging to genotype VIIi genetically similar to the viruses isolated on 2013. During the same period, neurologic signs and mortality were noticed in pigeons. Samples of brain tissue were tested by rRT-PCR which revealed presence of velogenic APMV-1 belonging to lineage 4A (GKKRKR*F Lin.4A) or genotype VIb. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the detection and molecular characterization of APMV-1 in a pigeon in Libya. The phylogenetic analysis of the F gene showed 86% identity to isolates from Iran and Egypt. This study may indicate the circulation of APMV-1 within backyard birds and pigeons which may present a threat to commercial poultry. Considering these findings, vaccination of backyard birds and pigeons and further epidemiological studies are strongly strongly recommended. arabic 19 English 111
Abdulwahab Kammon, Isabella Monne, Abdulatif Asheg , Giovanni Cattoli (1-2018)
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Effect of Some Organic Acids on Body Weight, Immunity and Cecal Bacterial Count of Chicken during Heat Stress

Abstract Objective: The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of heat stress on body weight, immune response and cecal bacterial count in parent broiler chickens and to determine the ameliorating effects of some organic acids to overcome heat stress. Materials and Methods: Day-old, 1920 male broiler parent chicks were used in a 2×2 factorial completely randomized design. The experimental chicks were randomly and equally distributed into 2 major groups (960 chicks each) which further divided into 4 subgroups (480 chicks each) with 8 replicates. Two subgroups were exposed to heat (H) at 35EC from 22-42 days of age and the other two subgroups was lift normal. Four replicates in each subgroup were given organic acids (OA) in drinking water at the first week, days 19-27 and last week of age whereas the other 4 replicates in the same subgroup were given normal drinking water. Results: Heat stress caused significant decrease in body weight, coliforms count and serum lysozyme level at 5th week of age. The body weight has been significantly ameliorated by organic acids. Deleterious effects of heat stress on immunity has been confirmed by the significant decrease of bursa/body weight ratio and total leukocyte count (TLC) at 4th week of age. The bacterial count was significantly increased in the group exposed to heat at 5th week of age. Conclusion: It is concluded that heat stress has deleterious effects on chickens and organic acids has significantly ameliorated some of these effects. arabic 18 English 91
Abdulwahab Kammon, Samia Alzentani, Omar Tarhuni , Abdulatif Asheg(5-2019)
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In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Clove Oil against Gram Negative Bacteria Isolated from Chickens

Abstract The use of antibiotics as growth promotors to enhance animal production is banned in many countries around the world due to antimicrobial resistance. There is a need therefore, for new alternatives to antibiotics in medicine and veterinary medicine practices. The antibacterial activity of clove oil and some antibiotics were tested in vitro against three isolates of E. coli {1 avian pathogenic (E. coli 6.2) and 2 non-pathogenic (E. coli 6.1 and E. coli X)}, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella spp., by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. All bacteria tested showed intermediate susceptibility to clove oil using disk diffusion method except the non-pathogenic E.coli 6.1. The inhibition zones measured were 0mm, 12mm, 13mm, 15mm and 15mm for E. coli 6.1, E. coli 6.2, E. coli X, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella spp., respectively. E. coli 6.1 was resistant to Ampicillin, and Lincomycin with multi antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of 0.2. E. coli 6.2 was resistant to Ampicillin, Doxycyclin and Lincomycin with MAR index of 0.3. E. coli X was resistant to Ampicillin and Colistin with MAR index of 0.2. Salmonella enteritidis was resistant to Amoxycillin/Clavulinic acid, Ampicillin and Lincomycin with MAR index of 0.3. Salmonella spp was susceptible only to Neomycin but was resistant to 9 out of 10 antibiotics with very high MAR index of 0.9. The MICs of clove oil were 6.25mg/ml for the avian pathogenic E. coli and 3.12mg/ml for non-pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella spp. and 12.5mg/ml for Salmonella enteritidis. It is concluded that clove oil has promising antibacterial activity and more studies are needed to investigate its in vivo activity as alternative to antibiotics in poultry arabic 13 English 85
Abdulwahab Kammon, Ali Almaeyoufi , Abdulatif Asheg(7-2019)
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Seroprevalence and molecular detection of Newcastle disease virus in backyard chickens in Tripoli, Libya

Abstract Background: Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease that affecting many avian species all over the world. Aim: ND has been successfully controlled by the vaccination of commercial poultry in Libya. However, there was a lack of information about the situation of ND in backyard chickens. Therefore, this study determined the prevalence of ND in backyard chickens in different locations of Tripoli. Methods: A total number of 280 cloacal swabs (190 in summer and 90 in winter) and 412 sera were collected from non-vaccinated backyard chicken flocks in different geographical locations within the area of Tripoli namely Qasr Ben Ghashier, Al-Sawani, Souq Al-Gomaa, Tajourah, Ein Zara, and Janzour. Cloacal swabs and sera were tested by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ELISA, respectively. Results: The prevalence of ND virus (NDV) infection in backyard chickens in different locations of Tripoli during summer and winter was 45% using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Except in Qasr Ben Ghashier, the prevalence in summer season was significantly higher than in winter (X2 = 46.13, p ≥ 0.00001). ELISA test revealed 218 positive out of 412 tested samples with total prevalence of 53% across the city of Tripoli in all regions. Obviously, Qasr Ben Ghashier had significantly (X2 = 74.09, p ≥ 0.00001) the highest prevalence (82%) of NDV specific antibodies followed by Tajourah (68%). Conclusion: This study demonstrated the situation of ND in backyard chicken highlighting the necessity of a comprehensive vaccination plan for backyard chickens. arabic 14 English 90
ِAbdulwahab Kammon, Emhemed A. Gedara, Hesham A. Alseed, Abdunaser S. Dayhum, Mohamed A. Benothman, Soleman O. Al-Garib, Ibrahim M. Eldaghayes(3-2020)
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Isolation, Serological and Molecular Detection of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) in Chickens in Libya

Infectious Laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a viral respiratory disease of poultry caused by Gallid herpesvirus 1 leading to severe economic losses. The aim of the current study was to isolate and identify ILT virus in suspected outbreaks of one broiler flock (farm 1) and three layer flocks (farms 2,3 and 4) located in Tripoli. Samples of trachea were collected and preserved in transport media for viral isolation and some were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for histopathology. Broiler and Layer flocks were serologically monitored and tested for the presence of antibodies by ELISA against ILTV at first days old and later at slaughter age for broilers and before the onset of production for layers in which total of 290 blood samples were collected from six poultry farms (3 broiler flocks and 3 layer flocks). Following isolation of the virus in fertile eggs, chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) samples were confirmed by PCR and histopathology. The lesions seen on the CAMs were congestion, hemorrhages and pocks after 5 days post inoculation. Samples from farm 1 and 3 were positive whereas other farms were negative. Histopathology of CAMs revealed edema, congestion, haemorrhages, infiltration of heterophils and mononuclear cells, and presence of syncytial cells containing intranuclear inclusion bodies. The trachea revealed severe destruction and sloughing of the mucosa due to necrosis. The results of this study confirmed the circulation of ILTV in commercial poultry flocks and highlighted the need for more epidemiologic investigation of the disease arabic 16 English 96
Abdulwahab Kammon, Jamaal Shabba, Yousef Abouzeed, Abdulatif Asheg (2-2020)
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